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动词的16个时态及其基本用法  

2014-11-13 07:40:04|  分类: 初中英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英文共有十六个时态。学习每一个时态时要记住下列几点。

一,使用时机,什么时候该用这个时态,

二,句型,每个时态的句型的肯定句,否定句,Yes/No问句,WH问句,时态句型的变化主要在动词,同时也要记住该句型所使用的是哪个助动词。

三,常见副词,有些副词常常会跟着这个句型一起出现,记住了有助于正确使用时态。

四,动词变化,不同时态的动词变化需要加s,加ed,还是加ing等。

在初高中阶段,一般不需要掌握表格右下角加注的六种时态。

1.现在简单式(一般现在时)的使用时机

现在简单式多用在表达日常生活的习惯,事实,真理等。

现在简单式的句型可细分为一般动词与be动词两种句型。每个英文句子都要有主词跟动词,所以当描述现在的事实状态时,假如句子没有一般动词,有名词,形容词,介系词词组,副词等时,则需要有现在简单式的be,也就是am, is, are。

a.现在习惯的动作或职业

I go to bed early and get up early.

I spend every summer in the mountains.

This man teaches English in a high school.

b.永久性状态 permanent state

I don’t like beef.

c.永恒性事实 eternal truths

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

d.感觉,感情或信仰的动词verbs of perception, emotion, and belief

I believe in God.

e.未来的时刻表 future with timetables, programs, etc.

The movie starts at 7.30 p.m.

f.假设语气的副词子句 conditional

If it rains, I’ll stay at home.

g.不变的真理或格言

Americans speak English.

Actions speak louder than words. / A stitch in time saves nine.

*(少数格言用其他时态) Diamond cut diamond. / Accidents will happen.

h.现在式代替未来式

(1)来去动词可用现在式代替未来式

I leave for Taichung on Sunday. / John gets back from the U.S. tonight.

(2) when , after , before , if 之中用现在式代替未来式

He will be happy when he hears the good news.

If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home

i.其他

(1)「报上、书上说」says

The book says that women can live longer the men.

(2)do(es) VR 加强语气

She may not be very smart, but she does get good grades.

You do look like your father.

常与现在简单式连用的副词如:every day, every week, once a week, twice a month, three times a year, always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never…等。

2.过去简单式(一般过去时)的使用时机

a.过去简单式用在表达过去发生的事件或动作,已经结束。强调动作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

b.过去简单式也用来表达在过去重复进行的活动、习惯。

I went to bed before 9 o’clock when I was a child.

My grandmother went to church every Sunday morning.

c.描述过去发生的事情,当一个持续进行的动作被另一个短暂的动作打断,持续进行的动作用过去进行式,短暂打断动作的用过去简单式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

d.过去简单式常用来讲一个故事中的动作。 过去进行式常用来讲一个故事中的背景。

The sun was shining. The birds were singing. We arrived at the beach.

e.did VR 加强语气

I did study for the test, but I still couldn’t get good grades.

f.过去某一段时间的经验 ( ever / never )

Did you ever see a lion? / She never heard such a beautiful song before.

***过去一直到说话之前的经验用现在完成式

常与过去简单式连用的副词如:this morning, this afternoon, this evening, tonight, yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday evening, last night, this Monday, last weekend, this January, last April, yesterday, the day before yesterday,

three days ago, five years ago, in 2005…等。

3.未来简单式(一般将来时)的使用时机

a.描述我们打算在将来所做的事,可使用will 或 be going to。但两者在使用上有些分别:

描述在说话之际决定会做的事,用will。先前已计划决定进行的事,便使用be going to。

‘Oh dear! I’ve split some wine on my jacket.’ ‘Don’t worry. I’ll clean it for you.’

‘Why are you putting on those old clothes?’ ‘I’m going to paint the kitchen.’

b.预言或预测未来的事,可用will 或 be going to,但两者在使用上有一些分别:

描述我们认为或相信会发生的事,用will。描述由现在的事导致将来发生的事,用 be going to。

Tomorrow will be another cold day in all parts of the country.

Look at those black clouds in the sky. It’s going to rain.

c.描述已安排或计划于将来做的事,可使用现在进行式来表示未来。在这种情况下使用现

在进行式,通常会有说明未来的时间。

We’re visiting some friends in Scotland next weekend.

d.谈及已定的时间表或节目表中所指定的未来项目,可用现在简单式表未来。

The film starts at 7.30 and finishes at 9.00.

e.在时间子句与条件子句等副词子句内应使用现在简单式来表示未来,而不可用will 或be going to。

I will give you a call when I arrive.

If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.

f.来去动词(go , come , begin , start , leave…) be Ving 表即将发生

常与未来简单式连用的副词如:later, tonight, tomorrow, next week, next February,

next year, in 2020 …等等。

4.现在进行式/时的使用时机

a.现在进行式是用来描述说话之际正在进行的事情。

‘Where are the children?’ ‘They are playing in the garden.’

b.现在进行式也用来描述短期间持续进行发生的事件,可能不在说话之际做该动作。

You’re spending a lot of money these days.

Robert is on vacation this week. He’s staying with his sister in New York.

c.现在进行式也用来描述已安排或计划于将来做的事。在这种情况下使用现在进行式,其后通常会有说明未来的时间。

I’m having a party this weekend.

d.现在进行式也用来描述目前正在转变或发展的情况。

Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives.

e.现在进行式 always / forever / all the time / constantly à说话者认为不良习惯或不耐烦之意

He is always complaining about the bad weather.

I’m always forgetting people’s names.

He is forever finding fault with me.

f.现在进行式可以表示现在的感情与情绪

【表同情】Are you feeling better this morning?

【表责备】Why aren’t you studying?

【表强调】Well, I am telling you the truth!

【表好奇】What are you doing here, girls?

【表不满】John is bothering me recently and keeping me from work.

【表快乐】You are helping me, darling.

【表赞赏】John is doing fine work at school.

g.be getting ~ / be becoming ~ 「逐渐、越来越~、快要..」

In summer, the days are getting longer and longer.

h.不用进行式的动词

表示「存在」「所有」「感情或感觉」之类的动词都没有进行式

need have own want belong to seem know like love hate believe understand mind forget notice think hope …….

(表一时性的动词(开始的时间就是结束的时间,没有继续的可能)

accept complete give put on promise receive decide end

(感官动词一般不用进行式

see hear notice feel ……

(表衡量之动词 measure weigh value cost number

(以主动语态代被动语态

This novel sells very well.

This pencil writes very well.

This cloth wears well.

This play reads better than it acts.

常与现在进行式连用的副词如:now, at the moment, immediately, right away, right now, these days, this year, this week…等等。

5.过去进行式/时的使用时机

a.过去进行式用在表达过去某个时间持续进行的动作。强调动作过程,而非动作的完成。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

b.过去进行式用来描述过去某时正在进行中的事情。所描述的活动或情况已经开始,而在当时仍未结束。

I saw you last night. You were waiting for a bus.

c.当描述过去发生的事时,假如要描述一个持续进行的动作被另一个短暂的动作打断时,用过去进行式来表达持续进行的动作,用过去简单式来表达短暂打断的动作。

When I got home, my parents were having dinner. (我到家时,爸妈正在吃饭)

We were walking in the park when it started to rain. (散步到一半时,雨开始下)

但是,要描述某事件在另一事件之后发生,便需使用过去简单式。

When I got home, my parents and I had dinner. (我到家,我跟爸妈再一起吃饭)

We stood under a tree when it started to rain. (先下雨,我们再站到树下)

d.说故事时,过去进行式通常用来描述故事的背景,过去简单式则用来描述所发生的事。

I was standing outside the bus station. It was getting late and I was feeling tired.

I was waiting for a man called Johnny Mars. Suddenly, a woman came round the

corner and walked right up to me. ‘Are you Mr. Black?’ she asked.

常与过去进行式连用的副词:at that time, at five o’clock yesterday, at seven o’clock last night, in 2001 还有其他表达过去时间的副词。

6.未来进行式(将来进行时)的使用时机

a.描述在将来某时间点正在进行中的事情,便使用未来进行式。

I’ll be having dinner at 7.00.

He’ll be out at 3.00. He’ll be playing golf.

b.描述已计划于将来进行的事情,或定期、按时、例行等的活动也可使用未来进行式。

I’ll be driving into town later on. Do you want a lift?

Ann can’t go to the party. She’ll be working all day tomorrow.

c. 要有礼貌地询问别人未来的安排,尤其是希望得到别人的帮忙时,也常使用未来进行式,在这种情况下使用,通常有不想打扰别人原来安排的意味。

‘Will you be going out this morning?’ ‘Yes, why?’ ‘Oh, could you get me a coffee?’

d.未来进行式也可以用在未来两件事中,持续进行被打断的事情

The band will play when the President enters. 总统先进来,乐队再演奏。

The band will be playing when the President enters. 当总统进来时,乐队已经事先开始演奏,会是演奏的途中进来。

7.现在完成式/时的使用时机

a.现在完成式可以用来表达在过去发生的事情,这个事情或状态从过去开始一直延续到现在,在未来也可能继续持续下去。表达这种情形时,多跟since或for连用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

She has worked at Google since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

b.现在完成式也用来表达经验,或在不确定的时间曾经(或未曾)发生或进行的事情。发生的时间不确定或不重要,重要的是结果,而且结果是跟现在有关的。

He has won the gold medal.

I’ve never been to Japan.

She has seen that movie before. She doesn’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

c.现在完成式也用来表达过去重复的活动,实际发生的时间并不重要。描述确定时间的字汇不用在现在完成式,但假如在说话之际today, this morning, this afternoon 等字汇尚未成为过去时,则可以用。也常与次数(times), since, so far…等副词连用。

I have had five cups of coffee today.

He has been to Japan three times this year.

I’ve written six letters this morning. (现在还是this morning)

d.如果过去某事的结果仍延续至今,我们也可以用现在完成式。

Someone has broken the window. (现在窗户还是破的)

我们经常这样用现在完成式来宣布消息。但在继续说明消息的详情时则用过去简单式。

Someone has stolen my bicycle. I left the bike outside for a few minutes and when

I came back. It wasn’t there.

e.现在完成是用来当表示刚刚最近不久前发生的事情时,常与just, recently, lately连用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

I’ve recently singed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.

(美式英语常用过去简单式来表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在这个用法中不会有过去时间: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

f.现在完成式强调已发生的事或发生的比预期早的时,常与already连用。yet用在问句中表达我们预期会发生的事情是否已经发生。yet也用在否定句表事情尚未发生。有时后我们用already在问句中,这通常表示讶异某事比预期还早的发生。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Have you eaten dinner yet? No, I haven’t eaten dinner yet.

Have you found a job yet?

Has he already gotten his flu shot? The flu season hasn’t begun yet.

常与现在完成式连用的副词如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系词for与since连用…等。

8.过去完成式/时的使用时机

a.过去完成式用来表达跟过去另外一个事件间的关系。用来表达某件事情发生在过去某个时间点前。

By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.

b.描述过去的两件事情,先发生的用过去完成式,后发生的用过去简单式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

We arrived at the cinema at 8.00, but the film had started at 7.30.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold al the tickets.

c.当两件事情间的关系很清楚的时候,比方说用before, after, as soon as连句子时,可以两件事情都用过去简单式。

The bus had left before he got there.

The bus left before he got there.

d.过去完成式是现在完成式的过去式。

I haven’t eaten all day today, so I’m very hungry now.

I hadn’t eaten all day yesterday, so I was very hungry when I got home.

9.未来完成式(将来完成时)

a.描述在将来某时间点已完成的事情,或活动的进行不会超越将来某时间,便使用未来完成式。使用这种形式时,我们心中想着一个未来的时间,再设想在那时间回顾,认为某些事情会完成。

I’ll have worked here for a year next September.

By June, he will have paid his debt.

10.现在完成进行式/时

a.现在完成进行式把过去与现在连在一起。现在完成式用来描述一些在过去开始而一直进行至今的事情。

I’ve been working all day.

b.如果某事情一直持续至不久之前,尤其是该事情至今仍留有后果,我们也可以用现在完成式来描述。

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

c. 直至目前(或不久之前)的一段期间内重复进行的活动或重复出现的情况,也可以用现在完成式。

I’ve been taking driving lessons for six months.

11.过去完成进行式/时

a.谈到过去时,我们有时会提及更早之前的事情。描述过去某指定时间之前一直在进行的事,便需使用过去完成进行式。

I’d been walking for about half an hour when it suddenly started to rain.

b.过去完成进行式是现在完成进行式的过去式。

I’ve been working hard all day, so I’m very tired now.

I’d been working hard all day, so I was very tired last night.

c.过去完成进行式可用根据过去的事件的证据来下结论。

The streets were wet. It had been raining.

She was out of breath. It was clear that she had been running.

12.未来完成进行式(将来完成进行时)

a.描述在将来某个时间前持续进行的事情可以用未来完成进行式。

I will have been working for ten years by the end of this year.

13.现在完成进行时

主语 have/has been 动词-ing(延续性动词)

构成形式

I / we / they have been 动词的现在分词

He / she / it has been 动词的现在分词

(一)表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在的动作,并且还将持续下去。

I have been learning English since three years ago.

自从三年前以来我一直在学英语。(动作还将继续下去)

(二)表示在说话时刻之前到现在正在进行的动作。

We have been waiting for you for half an hour.

我们已经等你半个钟头了(人还没到,如同在电话里说的,还会继续等)

(三)有些现在完成进行时的句子等同于现在完成时的句子。

I have been working here for five years.

I have worked here for five years.

我在这里已经工作五年了。(动作还将继续下去)

(四)大多数现在完成进行时的句子不等同于现在完成时的句子。

I have been writing a book.(动作还将继续下去)

我一直在写一本书。

I have written a book.(动作已经完成)

我已经写了一本书。

(五)表示状态的动词不能用于现在完成进行时。

I have known him for years.

我认识他已经好几年了。

* I have been knowing...

这类不能用于现在完成进行时的动词还有:love爱,like喜欢,hate讨厌,think想等等。

(六)一些现在完成时的句子也与现在完成进行时的句子含义相同

延续性动词在现在完成时与现在完成进行时时态中使用,句意相同。例如:

She has slept for 6 hours and still can not wake up.

She has been sleeping for 6 hours and still cannot wake up.

她已经睡了6个小时,到现在还没有醒来。

(七)表示现在以前一直在进行的动作强调动作的未完成性

It has been raining for 3 days。

已经下了3天的雨了(现在还没停止)

14.过去完成进行时

它通常表示某个过去正在进行的动作或状态,持续到过去某个时刻,还未完成,一直持续到之后才结束。

a.表示过去某一时间之前一直进行的动作。

I had been looking for it for days before I found it.

这东西我找了好多天才找着的。

b.表示反复的动作。

He had been mentioning your name to me.

他过去多次向我提到过你的名字。

c.常用于间接引语中

The doctor asked what he had been eating.

医生问他吃了什么。

d.接具有“突然”之意when句。

I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in.

我刚看了几分钟他就进来了。

15.将来完成进行时

将来完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始(过去或现在)一直延续到将来某一时间。是否继续下去,要视上下文而定。这个时态常和表示将来某一时间的状语连用。

主语 shall/will have been doing

The play is coming off in August. By then the play will have been running for three months. 这个剧将于8月停演。到那时为止,这个剧将连演三个月了。

16.过去将来完成时

表示从过去观点看将来某时某动作会业已完成。这个时态用得相对比较少,通常主要用于转述方面,即用于间接引语中。

She said she’d have finished her exams by then. 她说那时她会已经考完试了。

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